Management of refractory functional abdominal pain
Gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating, nausea and disturbed bowel pattern (constipation or diarrhoea) are often caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). FGID is diagnosed based on symptoms in the absence of abnormality on routine investigations.
Management is usually directed at symptom relieve but treatment outcome is variable due to a diverse pathophysiology. Patients with refractory symptoms may require management directed at the primary pathophysiology.